We documented an interesting phenomenon with the Antminer S19 device (including submodels such as the S19j Pro) where the temperature of the plate greatly affected the power consumption ratio of the machine.
Although temperature always affects the power ratio, and miners must work hard to prevent their machines from overheating, previous models (such as the Antminer S9 and X17 series) did not experience such significant power ratio (J/TH) fluctuations even when the temperature fluctuated within safe limits. In other words, temperature always affects the power consumption ratio to some extent, but temperature affects the X19 more than previous generations of miners. Miners should understand this to optimize their facilities.
This short report will share some of our findings so that miners can understand the scope of the impact.
Effect of temperature on power consumption of ant X19 series
Below is a very small piece of data that we will use to explain some of the details and then zoom in to see the whole picture.
On the vertical axis, we have the power consumption of the miner in units of W, and on the horizontal axis, we have the measured temperature of the calculation plate (starting from < 20℃ on the left and increasing by 5℃ in each column until the right reaches 75℃). The frequency is constant at 550 MHz and the voltage is constant at 13.5V. Because the frequency is fixed, the force is constant for all the data points in the chart. Note that we measured the power consumption on the wall and did not rely on the firmware’s estimated power consumption to collect this data.
Figure 1: Power consumption (Y-axis) with calculation plate temperature (X-axis), constant 13.5V and 550MHz frequency (similar to the official firmware factory Settings for the S19j Pro with 104 TH/s)
From this, we can observe that the power consumed by the device increases from left to right, indicating that higher temperature is positively correlated with higher power consumption even at constant frequency and voltage. But since the frequency is constant, the computational power will also be constant — meaning that power consumption is increasing, while the computational power is not.
For simplicity, we can say that the efficiency gets worse as the temperature increases (i.e. J/TH increases). In fact, the power consumption starts at 2.5kW at 20C and reaches 3.55kW at 75C. Assuming the official calculation power of the S19j Pro is 104 TH/s, this means the power consumption ratio changes from 24 J/TH at 20℃ to 34 J/TH at 75℃, while the calculation power and revenue remain the same.
The same pattern usually holds for other frequencies. In Figure 2 below, you can see power consumption (wall power consumption) at the frequencies 450 MHz (orange), 550 MHz (blue), and 650 MHz (red).
Figure 2: Power consumption (Y-axis) vs. calculation plate temperature (X-axis), constant 13.5V and compared at 450, 550 and 650 MHz frequencies
Also note that by controlling for fan speeds, we have verified that the same relationship exists between temperature and power consumption when running the official firmware.
The data provided above is only in small pieces to make it easier to understand, but we have collected enough data on multiple devices to be confident in this substantial relationship between temperature and power consumption.
Over the past few weeks, we have measured 12 different frequency levels, eight different voltage levels and all their combinations at different temperature levels, either by using immersion liquid cooling or by manipulating the fan of the air cooling device to control the temperature needed to achieve it. Overall, we collected more than 25,000 data points, which is why we share these findings with such high confidence.
Inspired by the
Controlling the temperature seems to be more important than ever for the Antminer X19 generation. Compared with previous generations of Ant mining machines, X19 series mining machines can operate at lower temperatures with lower power consumption and higher efficiency. Optimizing your mine infrastructure and machine configuration to keep temperatures as low as possible can have a big impact on your machine performance.
Another note specifically for users running Braiins OS+ in air cooling for the X19: When you run Auto tune, the fan will default to 100% speed to keep the device as cool as possible while tuning. Generally speaking, higher fan speeds can reduce the temperature to improve efficiency.
Also, keep in mind that if you want to determine your power consumption, the only way is to use a meter to measure it directly on the wall. The power consumption estimates in the Braiins OS+ interface are not accurate, which means that the efficiency estimates in the interface may also be turned off. We are working to improve these issues in future releases.